Air source Reversable CO₂ Air Conditioner
It is a project that aims to energy saving, to limit environmental impact, to contain costs and to guarantee high reliability by achieving the following objectives:
- To identify a beneficial energy solution for heating / cooling: heat pump system is an optimal solution, since it guarantees a substantial reduction in electricity consumption;
- To comply with the current regulation on greenhouse gases (Regulation EU no. 517/2014) and future restrictions: this regulation requires to move away from ozone depleting substance (ODS) and high-GWP refrigerants, orienting new projects to low-GWP technologies and solutions that pose a lower overall risk to human health and/or the environment. Natural refrigerants (HC and CO₂) fully capture these requirements.
- To overcome regulatory and safety constraints: in the railway field, there are constraints on the use of flammable or partially flammable refrigerants (HFO and HC);
- To identify an economically and technically sustainable solution: the technical complexity related to the reversibility of the operation in units with cycle inversion on the refrigeration circuit, involves high costs, as well as limits of reliability and availability of components.
Phase out HFCs
The mandatory regulations on Greenhouse Gases (ref. Regulation (EU) No 517/2014) impose the phase down of refrigerants with high GWP (Global Warming Potential).
Below is a brief roadmap of the phase down process of HFCs with high GWP.